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Basic knowledge of woodworking knife tools (a)
- Jul 19, 2018 -

Knife tool is a tool used in machine for machining, also known as a cutting tool. Generalized cutting tools include both tools and abrasive tools.


Most of the tools are machine-made, but they are also used by hand. Since the tools used in mechanical manufacturing are basically used to cut metal materials, the term "tool" is generally understood to mean a metal cutting tool. The tool used to cut wood is called a woodworking tool.


The development of cutting tools plays an important role in the history of human progress. As early as 28 BC to 20 BC, copper knives such as cones, drills, and knives of brass cones and copper have appeared. In the late Warring States period (3rd century BC), copper cutters were made due to the mastery of carburizing technology. The drill bits and saws at the time were somewhat similar to modern flat drills and saws.


However, the rapid development of the tool was in the late 18th century, accompanied by the development of machines such as steam engines. In 1783, France's Rene first produced a milling cutter. In 1792, the British Mozley made taps and dies. The earliest literature on the invention of twist drills was recorded in 1822, but it was not produced until 1864.


The tool at that time was made of integral high carbon tool steel with a cutting speed of about 5 m/min. In 1868, the British Mussett made alloy tool steel containing tungsten. In 1898, Taylor and the United States. White invented high speed steel. In 1923, Schletel of Germany invented cemented carbide.


When alloy tool steel is used, the cutting speed of the tool is increased to about 8 m/min, and when using high-speed steel, it is more than doubled. When using hard alloy, it is more than twice as high as that of high-speed steel. The surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the workpiece are also greatly improved.


Due to the high price of high speed steel and hard alloy, the tool has a welded and mechanically clamped structure. Between 1949 and 1950, the United States began using indexable inserts on turning tools, and soon applied to milling cutters and other tools. In 1938, the German company Degussa obtained a patent on ceramic knives. In 1972, General Electric Company of the United States produced polycrystalline synthetic diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride inserts. These non-metallic tool materials allow the tool to cut at higher speeds.


In 1969, the Swedish Sandvik Steel Plant patented the production of titanium carbide coated carbide inserts by chemical vapor deposition. In 1972, Bangsa and Lagrange in the United States developed physical vapor deposition to coat hard surfaces of titanium carbide or titanium nitride on the surface of cemented carbide or high speed steel tools. The surface coating method combines the high strength and toughness of the base material with the high hardness and wear resistance of the surface layer, so that the composite material has better cutting performance.