Laser cutting can be divided into four types: laser vaporizing cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting, laser cutting and control fracture.
1) laser vaporization cutting
Using high energy density laser beam to heat the workpiece, the temperature rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a very short time, and the material begins to vaporize, forming steam. These vapors are spewing out at a high speed, and as they do, they make a cut in the material. The heat of vaporization of materials is usually very large, so laser vaporization cutting requires a large power and power density.
Laser vaporization cutting is mainly used for cutting extremely thin metal materials and non-metallic materials (such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic and rubber).
2) laser melting cutting
Laser fusion cutting with laser heating melt metal materials, and then through the injection of oxidation and beam coaxial nozzle gas (Ar, He, N, etc.), rely on the strong pressure of the gas to liquid metal, form the incision. Laser melting cutting does not require complete vaporization of metal, and only requires 1/10 of the energy of vaporization cutting.
Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting non-oxidizing materials or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.
3) laser oxygen cutting
Laser oxygen cutting principle is similar to oxy-acetylene cutting. It USES laser as preheating heat source, oxygen and other active gases as cutting gas. On the one hand, the gas produced by the spray ACTS with metal cutting, causing oxidation reaction and releasing a large amount of oxidation heat. On the other hand, the molten oxide and molten material are blown out of the reaction zone, forming a cut in the metal. Due to oxidation produced a large amount of heat in the process of cutting, so the energy needed to power a laser oxygen cutting just melt cutting 1/2, and cutting speed is more than laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting. Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for oxidizing metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat treated steel.
4) laser cutting and control fracture
Laser scribing is the use of high energy density of laser scanning on the surface of brittle material, make the material vaporized out a small slot, and then a certain pressure, brittle material will be split along the small slot. The lasers used for laser cutting are generally q-switched laser and CO2 laser.
Controlled fracture is the use of laser groove when the steep temperature distribution, in the brittle materials to generate local thermal stress, so that the material along the small groove break.
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